Mapping

In this lesson, we’re going to learn how to analyze and visualize geographic data.

Geocoding with GeoPy

First, we’re going to geocode data — aka get coordinates from addresses or place names — with the Python package GeoPy. GeoPy makes it easier to use a range of third-party geocoding API services, such as Google, Bing, ArcGIS, and OpenStreetMap.

Though most of these services require an API key, Nominatim, which uses OpenStreetMap data, does not, which is why we’re going to use it here.

Install GeoPy

!pip install geopy

Import Nominatim

From GeoPy’s list of possible geocoding services, we’re going to import Nominatim:

from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim

Nominatim & OpenStreetMap

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Openstreetmap_logo.svg/256px-Openstreetmap_logo.svg.png

Nominatim (which means “name” in Latin) uses OpenStreetMap data to match addresses with geopgraphic coordinates. Though we don’t need an API key to use Nominatim, we do need to create a unique application name.

Here we’re initializing Nominatim as a variable called geolocator. Change the application name below to your own application name:

geolocator = Nominatim(user_agent="YOUR NAME's mapping app", timeout=2)

To geocode an address or location, we simply use the .geocode() function:

location = geolocator.geocode("South Cayuga Street")
location
Location(South Cayuga Street, South Hill, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14850, United States of America, (42.4359281, -76.4988639, 0.0))

Google Geocoding API

The Google Geocoding API is superior to Nominatim, but it requires an API key and more set up. To enable the Google Geocoding API and get an API key, see Get Started with Google Maps Platform and Get Started with Geocoding API.

#from geopy.geocoders import GoogleV3
#google_geolocator = GoogleV3(api_key="YOUR-API-KEY HERE")
#google_geolocator.geocode("Cayuga Street")

Get Address

print(location.address)
South Cayuga Street, South Hill, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14850, United States of America

Get Latitude and Longitude

print(location.latitude, location.longitude)
42.4359281 -76.4988639

Get “Importance” Score

print(f"Importance: {location.raw['importance']}")
Importance: 0.4

Get Class and Type

print(f"Class: {location.raw['class']} \nType: {location.raw['type']}")
Class: highway 
Type: residential

Get Multiple Possible Matches

possible_locations = geolocator.geocode("College Ave", exactly_one=False)

for location in possible_locations:
    print(location.address)
    print(location.latitude, location.longitude)
    print(f"Importance: {location.raw['importance']}")
College Avenue, Pemberton Tract, Midland, Midland County, Texas, United States of America
31.99450735 -102.08441405117188
Importance: 0.35000000000000003
College Avenue, Illinois Prairie Path, Wheaton, DuPage County, Illinois, 60187, United States of America
41.8683333 -88.0902778
Importance: 0.34778803910650136
College Avenue, Grantham, Cumberland, Pennsylvania, 17027, United States of America
40.155326 -76.994622
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, London, Southwestern Ontario, Ontario, N6A 3H1, Canada
42.9982465 -81.2561233
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, Spring Valley Estates, Athens-Clarke County Unified Government, Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, 30334-1458, United States of America
33.9578193 -83.3752778
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, Windsor, Southwestern Ontario, Ontario, N9C 2K7, Canada
42.298467 -83.0652786
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, Uptown, Racine, Wisconsin, 53403, United States of America
42.7160925 -87.784789
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, Morris, Stevens County, Minnesota, 56267, United States of America
45.5906183 -95.9045979
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, Swarthmore, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 19081, United States of America
39.9058529 -75.3474084
Importance: 0.3
College Avenue, South Woodstock, Woodstock, Oxford County, Southwestern Ontario, Ontario, N4S 2E3, Canada
43.1246427 -80.745315
Importance: 0.3
location = geolocator.geocode("College Ave, Ithaca NY")

print(location.address)
print(location.latitude, location.longitude)
print(f"Importance: {location.raw['importance']}")
College Avenue, East Ithaca, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14853, United States of America
42.4431445 -76.4852319
Importance: 0.41000000000000003

Geocode with Pandas

To geocode every location in a CSV file, we can use Pandas, make a Python function, and .apply() it to every row in the CSV file.

import pandas as pd
pd.set_option("max_rows", 400)
pd.set_option("max_colwidth", 400)

Here we make a function with geolocator.geocode() and ask it to return the address, lat/lon, and importance score:

def find_location(row):
    
    place = row['place']
    
    location = geolocator.geocode(place)
    
    if location != None:
        return location.address, location.latitude, location.longitude, location.raw['importance']
    else:
        return "Not Found", "Not Found", "Not Found", "Not Found"

To start exploring, let’s read in a CSV file with a list of places in and around Ithaca.

ithaca_df = pd.read_csv("../data/ithaca-places.csv")
ithaca_df
place
0 College Town Bagels
1 Ithaca Falls
2 Moosewood Restaurant
3 Cascadilla Gorge Trail
4 Phillips Hall
5 Carriage House Cafe
6 Olin Library
7 Purity Ice Cream
8 Buttermilk Falls State Park
9 Libe Slope
10 Mundy Wildflower Garden
11 Gimme! Coffee
12 Beebe Lake
13 Ithaca Tompkins Airport
14 Wharton Studio Inc.

Now let’s .apply() our function to this Pandas dataframe and see what results Nominatim’s geocoding service spits out.

ithaca_df[['address', 'lat', 'lon', 'importance']] = ithaca_df.apply(find_location, axis="columns", result_type="expand")
ithaca_df
place address lat lon importance
0 College Town Bagels Collegetown Bagels, College Avenue, East Ithaca, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14850, United States of America 42.4424 -76.4851 0.35
1 Ithaca Falls Ithaca Falls, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14850, United States of America 42.4528 -76.4916 0.48084
2 Moosewood Restaurant Moosewood Restaurant, North Cayuga Street, South Hill, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14850, United States of America 42.4406 -76.4986 0.475949
3 Cascadilla Gorge Trail Cascadilla Gorge Trail, East Ithaca, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14853, United States of America 42.4429 -76.4821 0.375
4 Phillips Hall Phillips Hall, Oak Street, Oxford, Oxford Township, Butler County, Ohio, 45056, United States of America 39.5052 -84.7368 0.201
5 Carriage House Cafe Carriage House Cafe, B4380, Atcham, Shropshire, West Midlands, England, SY5 6QQ, United Kingdom 52.6857 -2.66969 0.301
6 Olin Library Olin Library, Holt Avenue, Winter Park, Orange County, Florida, 32789, United States of America 28.591 -81.3492 0.201
7 Purity Ice Cream Purity Ice Cream, Cascadilla Street, South Hill, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14851, United States of America 42.4445 -76.5089 0.301
8 Buttermilk Falls State Park Buttermilk Falls State Park, South Hill, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, United States of America 42.4162 -76.5164 0.771981
9 Libe Slope Libe Slope, East Ithaca, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, United States of America 42.4484 -76.4866 0.4
10 Mundy Wildflower Garden Mundy Wildflower Garden, Forest Home, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, United States of America 42.4505 -76.4692 0.45
11 Gimme! Coffee Gimme! Coffee, West State Street, South Hill, Ithaca, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14851, United States of America 42.4395 -76.5064 0.201
12 Beebe Lake Beebe Lake, Forest Home Drive, Forest Home, Ithaca Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14853, United States of America 42.4512 -76.4757 0.201
13 Ithaca Tompkins Airport Ithaca Tompkins Regional Airport, Brown Road, Lansing, Lansing Town, Tompkins County, New York, 14850, United States of America 42.491 -76.4587 0.624671
14 Wharton Studio Inc. Not Found Not Found Not Found Not Found

What do you notice about these results? ☝️☝️☝️

Wharton Studio Inc. (1914-1919) — early 20th-century Ithaca movie studio, located in what is now Stewart Park
To check out more historical photos of Wharton Studio Inc., see the Cornell library.

Making Interactive Maps

To map our geocoded coordinates, we’re going to use the Python library Folium. Folium is built on top of the popular JavaScript library Leaflet.

To install and import Folium, run the cells below:

!pip install folium
import folium

Base Map

First, we need to establish a base map. This is where we’ll map our geocoded Ithaca locations. To do so, we’re going to call folium.Map()and enter the general latitude/longitude coordinates of the Ithaca area at a particular zoom.

(To find latitude/longitude coordintes for a particular location, you can use Google Maps, as described here.)

ithaca_map = folium.Map(location=[42.44, -76.5], zoom_start=14)
ithaca_map

Add a Marker

Adding a marker to a map is easy with Folium! We’ll simply call folium.Marker() at a particular lat/lon, enter some text to display when the marker is clicked on, and then add it to our base map.

folium.Marker(location=[42.444695, -76.482233], popup="Intro to Cultural Analytics").add_to(ithaca_map)
ithaca_map

Add Markers From Pandas Data

To add markers for every location in our Pandas dataframe, we can make a Python function and .apply() it to every row in the dataframe.

def create_map_markers(row, map_name):
    folium.Marker(location=[row['lat'], row['lon']], popup=row['place']).add_to(map_name)

Before we apply this function to our dataframe, we’re going to drop any locations that were “Not Found” (which would cause folium.Marker() to return an error).

found_ithaca_locations = ithaca_df[ithaca_df['address'] != "Not Found"]
found_ithaca_locations.apply(create_map_markers, map_name=ithaca_map, axis='columns')
ithaca_map

Save Map

ithaca_map.save("Ithaca-map.html")

Torn Apart / Separados

The data in this section was drawn from Torn Apart / Separados Project. It maps the locations of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, as featured in Volume 1.

Add a Circle Marker

There are a few different kinds of markers that we can add to a Folium map, including circles. To make a circle, we can call folium.CircleMarker() with a particular radius and the option to fill in the circle. You can explore more customization options in the Folium documentation. We’re also going to add a hover tooltip in addition to a popup.

def create_ICE_map_markers(row, map_name):
    
    folium.CircleMarker(location=[row['lat'], row['lon']], raidus=100, fill=True,
                popup=folium.Popup(f"{row['Name'].title()} <br> {row['City'].title()}, {row['State']}", max_width=200),
                  tooltip=f"{row['Name'].title()} <br> {row['City'].title()}, {row['State']}"
                 ).add_to(map_name)
ICE_df = pd.read_csv("../data/ICE-facilities.csv")
ICE_df
lat lon adpSum onWeb Flags fulladdr DETLOC Name Address City ... ICE.Threat.Level.2 ICE.Threat.Level.3 No.ICE.Threat.Level Facility.Operator FY17.Calendar.Days.in.Use FY17...of.Days.in.Use FY17.Total.Mandays FY17.Max.Pop.Count geocodelat geocodelon
0 28.895000 -99.121200 8391 28.8950 NaN 566 VETERANS DRIVE PEARSALL TX 78061 STCDFTX SOUTH TEXAS DETENTION COMPLEX 566 VETERANS DRIVE PEARSALL ... 112 311 1187 GEO 372 1.02 598554 1854 28.896498 -99.116863
1 32.036600 -84.771800 8004 32.0366 NaN 146 CCA ROAD LUMPKIN GA 31815 STWRTGA STEWART DETENTION CENTER 146 CCA ROAD LUMPKIN ... 344 365 671 CCA 372 1.02 671515 1992 32.037982 -84.772465
2 34.559200 -117.441000 7265 34.5592 NaN 10250 RANCHO ROAD ADELANTO CA 92301 ADLNTCA ADELANTO ICE PROCESSING CENTER 10250 RANCHO ROAD ADELANTO ... 206 164 726 GEO 372 1.02 625414 1918 34.557721 -117.442524
3 32.817700 -111.520000 7096 32.8177 NaN 1705 EAST HANNA RD. ELOY AZ 85131 EAZ ELOY FEDERAL CONTRACT FACILITY 1705 EAST HANNA RD. ELOY ... 154 232 785 CCA 372 1.02 502952 1489 32.821231 -111.549772
4 47.249100 -122.421000 6757 47.2491 NaN 1623 E. J STREET TACOMA WA 98421 CSCNWWA NORTHWEST DETENTION CENTER 1623 E. J STREET TACOMA ... 166 174 693 GEO 372 1.02 519386 1563 47.250214 -122.422746
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
481 39.671492 -75.714329 1 0.0000 NaN 970 BROAD STREET NEWARK NJ 7102 NEWHOLD NEW/INS OS HOLD ROOM 970 BROAD STREET NEWARK ... 0 0 1 FEDERAL 37 0.10 50 2 39.671492 -75.714329
482 26.204563 -98.270145 1 0.0000 NaN BENTSEN TOWER, 1701 W BUS HWY 83 MCALLEN TX 78501 USMS3TX US MARSHALS (SOUTH DISTRICT, TEXAS) BENTSEN TOWER, 1701 W BUS HWY 83 MCALLEN ... 0 0 0 FEDERAL 0 0.00 0 0 26.204563 -98.270145
483 41.528728 -73.363545 1 0.0000 NaN BRIDGEWATER STATE HOSPITAL BRIDGEWATER MA 2324 MABSHOS BRIDGEWATER STATE HOSPITAL BRIDGEWATER STATE HOSPITAL BRIDGEWATER ... 0 0 0 HOSPITAL 0 0.00 0 0 41.528728 -73.363545
484 NaN NaN 1 0.0000 NaN Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted ... 0 0 0 ORR 17 0.05 17 1 NaN NaN
485 NaN NaN 1 0.0000 NaN Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted Redacted ... 0 0 0 NaN 0 0.00 0 0 NaN NaN

486 rows × 51 columns

US_map = folium.Map(location=[42, -102], zoom_start=4)
US_map
ICE_df = ICE_df.dropna(subset=['lat', 'lon'])
ICE_df.apply(create_ICE_map_markers, map_name=US_map, axis="columns")
US_map

Choropleth Maps

Choropleth map = a map where areas are shaded according to a value

The data in this section was drawn from Torn Apart / Separados Project. This data maps the “cumulative ICE awards since 2014 to contractors by congressional district,” as featured in Volume 2.

To create a chropleth map with Folium, we need to pair a “geo.json” file (which indicates which parts of the map to shade) with a CSV file (which includes the variable that we want to shade by).

The following data was drawn from the Torn Apart / Separados project

US_districts_geo_json = "../data/ICE_money_districts.geo.json"
US_districts_csv = pd.read_csv("../data/ICE_money_districts.csv")
US_districts_csv = US_districts_csv .dropna(subset=['districtName', 'representative'])
US_districts_csv
id id2 state districtNumber districtName party district_url representative representative_photo_url total_awards
0 5001500US0101 101 Alabama 1 ta-ordinal-st-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama%27s_1st_congressional_district Bradley Byrne https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Rep_Bradley_Byrne_%28cropped%29.jpg 0.00
1 5001500US0102 102 Alabama 2 ta-ordinal-nd-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama%27s_2nd_congressional_district Martha Roby https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Martha_roby_113_congressional_portrait_%28cropped%29.jpg 38577.40
2 5001500US0103 103 Alabama 3 ta-ordinal-rd-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama%27s_3rd_congressional_district Mike Rogers https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Mike_Rogers_official_photo_%28cropped%29.jpg 0.00
3 5001500US0104 104 Alabama 4 ta-ordinal-th-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama%27s_4th_congressional_district Robert Aderholt https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Rep._Robert_B._Aderholt_%28cropped%29.jpg 171873.55
4 5001500US0105 105 Alabama 5 ta-ordinal-th-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama%27s_5th_congressional_district Mo Brooks https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Mo_Brooks_Portrait_%28cropped%29.jpg 40346.00
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
432 5001500US5506 5506 Wisconsin 6 ta-ordinal-th-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisconsin%27s_6th_congressional_district Glenn Grothman https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Glenn_Grothman_official_congressional_photo_%28cropped%29.jpg 3242401.61
433 5001500US5507 5507 Wisconsin 7 ta-ordinal-th-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisconsin%27s_7th_congressional_district Sean Duffy https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Sean_Duffy_official_congressional_photo_%28cropped%29.jpg 32698.55
434 5001500US5508 5508 Wisconsin 8 ta-ordinal-th-m republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisconsin%27s_8th_congressional_district Mike Gallagher https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Mike_Gallagher_Official_Portrait_2017_%28cropped%29.png 237392.73
435 5001500US5600 5600 Wyoming 0 ta-at-large-district republican https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wyoming%27s_at-large_congressional_district Liz Cheney https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Liz_Cheney_official_portrait.jpg 0.00
436 5001500US7298 7298 Puerto Rico 98 ta-ordinal-th-m no-rep https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto_Rico%27s_at-large_congressional_district Resident Commissioner Jenniffer González https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Official_portrait_of_Resident_Commissioner_Jenniffer_Gonzalez.jpg/800px-Official_portrait_of_Resident_Commissioner_Jenniffer_Gonzalez.jpg 323102.10

431 rows × 10 columns

US_map = folium.Map(location=[42, -102], zoom_start=4)

folium.Choropleth(
    geo_data = US_districts_geo_json,
    name = 'choropleth',
    data = US_districts_csv,
    columns = ['districtName', 'total_awards'],
    key_on = 'feature.properties.districtName',
    fill_color = 'GnBu',
    line_opacity = 0.2,
    legend_name= 'Total ICE Money Received'
).add_to(US_map)

US_map