Twitter Data Sharing

In this lesson, we’re going to learn how to share Twitter data and access data shared by others with the Python/command line tool twarc. We’re specifically going to work with twarc2, which is designed for version 2 of the Twitter API (released in 2020) and the Academic Research track of the Twitter API (released in 2021).

Twarc was developed by a project called Documenting the Now. The DocNow team develops tools and ethical frameworks for social media research.

This lesson presumes that you’ve already installed and configured twarc, which was covered in a previous lesson.

Tweet IDs

Twitter discourages developers and researchers from sharing full Twitter data openly on the web. They instead encourage developers and researchers to share tweet IDs:

Tweet IDs are unique identifiers assigned to every tweet. They look like a random string of numbers: 1189206626135355397. Each tweet ID can be used to download the full data associated with that tweet (if the tweet still exists). This is a process called “hydration.”

https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2013/07/12/19/24/sapling-154734_960_720.png

Hydration: a young tweet ID sprouts into a full tweet (to be read in David Attenborough’s voice)

There are actually two reasons that you might want to dehydrate tweets and/or hydrate tweet IDs: first, to responsibly share Twitter data with others and/or access Twitter data shared by others; second, to get more information about the Twitter data that you yourself collected.

If you collected tweets in real time, for example, you collected those tweets immediately after they were published, which means that they will not contain any retweet or favorite count information. Nobody’s had time to retweet them yet! So if you’d like to retroactively get retweet and favorite count information about your tweets, then you would want to dehydrate and rehydrate them.

Dehydrate Tweets

twarc2 dehydrate tweets.jsonl > tweet_ids.txt

To transform your Twitter data into a list of tweet IDs (so that you can share your data openly on the web), you can run the twarc command twarc2 dehydrate with the name of your JSONL file followed by the output operator > and the desired name of your tweet ID text file.

tweet ID —> tweet = hydration
tweet ID <— tweet = dehydration

Let’s dehydrate the Twitter data that we collected about “Infinite Jest” from only verified Twitter accounts.

!twarc2 dehydrate twitter-data/dfw_bro.jsonl > twitter-data/dfw_bro.txt

If we open() and .read() the tweet IDs file that we just created, it looks something like this:

tweet_ids = open("twitter-data/dfw_bro.txt", encoding="utf-8").read()
print(tweet_ids)
1412360883582418945
1408833479304003589
1313590839977947136
1313523086424186881
1298060678432010240
1297973554986639360
1296466668898717696
1259920233600479233
1075778924280471553
995487617549512704
898246334804787202
844552567522820096
760889024403873792
733665498148294657
694224894805032964
686753187727044609
644308060937265152
644307992901517312
644307901830561793
632152536636608512
631931489769390080
631828145105162240
631825643441901568
631825543202213889
631820349290774528
545020559248343040
270661455727165442
146330510422048768

Hydrate Tweets

twarc2 hydrate tweet_ids.txt > tweets.jsonl

To transform a list of tweet IDs into full Twitter data, you can run the twarc command twarc2 hydrate with the name of your tweet IDs text file followed by the output operator > and the desired name of your JSONL file.

tweet ID —> tweet = hydration
tweet ID <— tweet = dehydration

Now let’s re-hydrate the Twitter data that we collected a few weeks ago based on the tweet IDs that we just dehydrated.

!twarc2 hydrate twitter-data/dfw_bro.txt > twitter-data/dfw_bro_REHYDRATED.jsonl
tweet_json = open("twitter-data/dfw_bro_REHYDRATED.jsonl", encoding="utf-8").read()
print(tweet_json)
{"data": [{"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "46", "name": "Brand Category", "description": "Categories within Brand Verticals that narrow down the scope of Brands"}, "entity": {"id": "781974596752842752", "name": "Services"}}, {"domain": {"id": "47", "name": "Brand", "description": "Brands and Companies"}, "entity": {"id": "10045225402", "name": "Twitter"}}], "id": "1412360883582418945", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 90, "end": 109, "probability": 0.89, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "david foster wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 0, "end": 10, "username": "TomKealy2", "id": "82979289"}, {"start": 11, "end": 19, "username": "aveek18", "id": "525812389"}, {"start": 20, "end": 32, "username": "maybeavalon", "id": "108463534"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "replied_to", "id": "1412360683237355524"}], "author_id": "342644076", "text": "@TomKealy2 @aveek18 @maybeavalon Imo the great twitter literature injustice is that it is david foster wallace and not him that is smeared as the dumb bro contemporary author", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1412043478301880331", "source": "Twitter Web App", "in_reply_to_user_id": "82979289", "created_at": "2021-07-06T10:40:49.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 2, "like_count": 2, "quote_count": 0}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1053753085489606656", "name": "Laura Ingraham", "description": "Laura Ingraham"}}, {"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1070711281076715520", "name": "Virginia Heffernan", "description": "American journalist"}}, {"domain": {"id": "94", "name": "Journalist", "description": "A journalist like 'Anderson Cooper'"}, "entity": {"id": "1053753085489606656", "name": "Laura Ingraham", "description": "Laura Ingraham"}}, {"domain": {"id": "94", "name": "Journalist", "description": "A journalist like 'Anderson Cooper'"}, "entity": {"id": "1070711281076715520", "name": "Virginia Heffernan", "description": "American journalist"}}], "id": "1408833479304003589", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 89, "end": 108, "probability": 0.9731, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 158, "end": 160, "probability": 0.5814, "type": "Place", "normalized_text": "DFW"}], "mentions": [{"start": 0, "end": 7, "username": "page88", "id": "4282171"}, {"start": 8, "end": 22, "username": "IngrahamAngle", "id": "50769180"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "replied_to", "id": "1408819214744489985"}], "author_id": "15639774", "text": "@page88 @IngrahamAngle I heard a tech bro quote a line about cruise ship wait staff from David Foster Wallace's A Supposedly Fun Thing and said it showed how DFW really believed in great customer service.", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1408773437431091202", "source": "TweetDeck", "in_reply_to_user_id": "4282171", "created_at": "2021-06-26T17:04:10.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 11, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "1313590839977947136", "reply_settings": "everyone", "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "retweeted", "id": "1313523086424186881"}], "entities": {"mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 13, "username": "ben_geier", "id": "602060212"}]}, "author_id": "602060212", "text": "RT @ben_geier: the guy who publicly makes a display of how much feminist literature he reads and waxes on how important bookshelf represent\u2026", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1313590839977947136", "source": "Twitter Web App", "created_at": "2020-10-06T21:23:56.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 13, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "1313523086424186881", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 216, "end": 235, "probability": 0.9361, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "david foster wallace"}, {"start": 241, "end": 249, "probability": 0.6625, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "hemingway"}], "urls": [{"start": 269, "end": 292, "url": "https://t.co/QsvsVxBY15", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/ebruenig/status/1313522459899985922", "display_url": "twitter.com/ebruenig/statu\u2026"}]}, "author_id": "602060212", "text": "the guy who publicly makes a display of how much feminist literature he reads and waxes on how important bookshelf representation is at least 50% more likely to be a sexpest than the bro who just likes to vibe about david foster wallace and hemingway. this is science. https://t.co/QsvsVxBY15", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1313523086424186881", "source": "Twitter Web App", "created_at": "2020-10-06T16:54:42.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 13, "reply_count": 2, "like_count": 97, "quote_count": 1}}, {"id": "1298060678432010240", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 20, "end": 39, "probability": 0.7433, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "david foster wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 18, "username": "davidgross_man", "id": "236999725"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "retweeted", "id": "1297936487909130240"}], "author_id": "23314192", "text": "RT @davidgross_man: david foster wallace bro conversation again? i feel like by this point in the discourse i need footnotes! (just a littl\u2026", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1298060678432010240", "source": "Twitter Web App", "created_at": "2020-08-25T00:52:37.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 23, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1070723963087540224", "name": "Mara Wilson", "description": "American playwright, singer, blogger, writer and actress"}}, {"domain": {"id": "56", "name": "Actor", "description": "An actor or actress in the world, like Kate Winslet or Leonardo DiCaprio"}, "entity": {"id": "1070723963087540224", "name": "Mara Wilson", "description": "American playwright, singer, blogger, writer and actress"}}], "id": "1297973554986639360", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 20, "end": 39, "probability": 0.7433, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "david foster wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 18, "username": "davidgross_man", "id": "236999725"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "retweeted", "id": "1297936487909130240"}], "author_id": "386056280", "text": "RT @davidgross_man: david foster wallace bro conversation again? i feel like by this point in the discourse i need footnotes! (just a littl\u2026", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1297973554986639360", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2020-08-24T19:06:25.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 23, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "1296466668898717696", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 60, "end": 79, "probability": 0.8772, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 227, "end": 239, "probability": 0.4009, "type": "Product", "normalized_text": "INFINITE JEST"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "replied_to", "id": "1296458752657326081"}], "author_id": "365438535", "text": "(Gonna out myself as an insufferable millennial bro and say David Foster Wallace\u2014his maximalism expands my sense of what's possible on the page, as does his notorious blend of academic and colloquial prose. I swear the copy of INFINITE JEST on my shelf is not a display piece.)", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1296458752657326081", "source": "Twitter Web App", "in_reply_to_user_id": "365438535", "created_at": "2020-08-20T15:18:35.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 14, "quote_count": 0}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "85", "name": "Book Genre", "description": "A genre for books, like Fiction"}, "entity": {"id": "859531094730825728", "name": "Biographies and memoirs", "description": "Biographies and memoirs"}}], "id": "1259920233600479233", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 18, "end": 36, "probability": 0.4401, "type": "Other", "normalized_text": "MEL Review of Books"}, {"start": 174, "end": 180, "probability": 0.9168, "type": "Organization", "normalized_text": "Esquire"}, {"start": 212, "end": 231, "probability": 0.9804, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 46, "end": 57, "username": "leahrosenz", "id": "734174508"}, {"start": 66, "end": 81, "username": "adriennemiller", "id": "1182311889277206529"}], "urls": [{"start": 239, "end": 262, "url": "https://t.co/26WQYMgakO", "expanded_url": "https://melmagazine.com/en-us/story/how-adrienne-miller-made-it-in-the-1990s-heyday-of-the-postmodern-lit-bro", "display_url": "melmagazine.com/en-us/story/ho\u2026"}]}, "author_id": "460444548", "text": "This week for the MEL Review of Books, we had @leahrosenz talk to @adriennemiller about IN THE LAND OF MEN, a memoir of the dude snobbery she faced as the literary editor at Esquire while publishing the likes of David Foster Wallace:     \nhttps://t.co/26WQYMgakO", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1259920233600479233", "source": "Twitter Web App", "created_at": "2020-05-11T18:56:06.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 9, "quote_count": 0}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1011963575089262593", "name": "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez", "description": "US Representative from New York Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez"}}, {"domain": {"id": "35", "name": "Politician", "description": "Politicians in the world, like Joe Biden"}, "entity": {"id": "1011963575089262593", "name": "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez", "description": "US Representative from New York Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez"}}, {"domain": {"id": "65", "name": "Interests and Hobbies Vertical", "description": "Top level interests and hobbies groupings, like Food or Travel"}, "entity": {"id": "825047692124442624", "name": "Food", "description": "Food"}}, {"domain": {"id": "30", "name": "Entities [Entity Service]", "description": "Entity Service top level domain, every item that is in Entity Service should be in this domain"}, "entity": {"id": "824777229892661248", "name": "Generic Food", "description": "Generic Food"}}, {"domain": {"id": "30", "name": "Entities [Entity Service]", "description": "Entity Service top level domain, every item that is in Entity Service should be in this domain"}, "entity": {"id": "825065539378688000", "name": "Seafood", "description": "Seafood"}}], "id": "1075778924280471553", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 6, "end": 22, "probability": 0.9307, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Alexandria Ocasio"}, {"start": 24, "end": 29, "probability": 0.5206, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Cortez"}, {"start": 33, "end": 52, "probability": 0.8046, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "urls": [{"start": 59, "end": 82, "url": "https://t.co/OcwGRUdWMV", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/AOC/status/1075614808853110785", "display_url": "twitter.com/AOC/status/107\u2026"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "quoted", "id": "1075614808853110785"}], "author_id": "398088661", "text": "Is\u2014is Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez a David Foster Wallace bro? https://t.co/OcwGRUdWMV", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1075778924280471553", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2018-12-20T15:44:17.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 4, "reply_count": 3, "like_count": 54, "quote_count": 3}}, {"id": "995487617549512704", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 20, "end": 26, "probability": 0.6016, "type": "Organization", "normalized_text": "KGB Bar"}, {"start": 71, "end": 90, "probability": 0.9265, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 116, "end": 129, "probability": 0.9987, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Thomas Pynchon"}], "urls": [{"start": 132, "end": 155, "url": "https://t.co/iQLxduLtEN", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/bkerogers/status/994737256211648512", "display_url": "twitter.com/bkerogers/stat\u2026"}]}, "author_id": "1000899020", "text": "I got kicked out of KGB Bar in the LES for arguing with a lit bro that David Foster Wallace is a better writer than Thomas Pynchon. https://t.co/iQLxduLtEN", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "995487617549512704", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2018-05-13T02:15:17.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 12, "like_count": 47, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "898246334804787202", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 49, "end": 68, "probability": 0.9503, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 16, "username": "TaylorOSoule", "id": "275829938"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "retweeted", "id": "898243199722016768"}], "author_id": "19608605", "text": "RT @TaylorOSoule: UPDATE: I met a \"Have you read David Foster Wallace?\" bro at law school. It only took four days, fam. FOUR.", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "898246334804787202", "source": "TweetDeck", "created_at": "2017-08-17T18:13:09.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "844552567522820096", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 1, "end": 20, "probability": 0.9252, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "urls": [{"start": 73, "end": 96, "url": "https://t.co/GPCbgdBL3e", "expanded_url": "https://newrepublic.com/minutes/141498/neil-gorsuch-will-first-lit-bro-supreme-court-justice", "display_url": "newrepublic.com/minutes/141498\u2026"}]}, "author_id": "15649438", "text": "\"David Foster Wallace is essentially the same as skiing and cigars now.\u201d https://t.co/GPCbgdBL3e", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "844552567522820096", "source": "TweetDeck", "created_at": "2017-03-22T14:13:17.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 4, "reply_count": 2, "like_count": 14, "quote_count": 3}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "35", "name": "Politician", "description": "Politicians in the world, like Joe Biden"}, "entity": {"id": "10037721459", "name": "Bernie Sanders", "description": "US Senator Bernie Sanders (VT)\n"}}, {"domain": {"id": "38", "name": "Political Race", "description": ""}, "entity": {"id": "10037066629", "name": "2016 US Elections", "description": "2016 US Elections"}}], "id": "760889024403873792", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 12, "end": 17, "probability": 0.8566, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Bernie"}, {"start": 63, "end": 82, "probability": 0.958, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}]}, "author_id": "193477066", "text": "New theory: Bernie Bro holdouts are exactly the same people as David Foster Wallace fanatics. Yes?", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "760889024403873792", "source": "Twitter Web Client", "created_at": "2016-08-03T17:24:14.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 2, "like_count": 14, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "733665498148294657", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 7, "end": 26, "probability": 0.9195, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 50, "end": 69, "probability": 0.9235, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "replied_to", "id": "733665146216779776"}], "author_id": "398088661", "text": "Am I a David Foster Wallace bro? Very well, I'm a David Foster Wallace bro.", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "733665146216779776", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "in_reply_to_user_id": "398088661", "created_at": "2016-05-20T14:27:40.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 2, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "694224894805032964", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 0, "end": 19, "probability": 0.9365, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 80, "end": 89, "username": "Bro_Pair", "id": "56309136"}], "urls": [{"start": 90, "end": 113, "url": "https://t.co/hxGFGY6D3Z", "expanded_url": "http://www.cosmoetica.com/b326-des266.htm", "display_url": "cosmoetica.com/b326-des266.htm"}]}, "author_id": "605556917", "text": "David Foster Wallace sucks and this is a great review of interminable jest, via @Bro_Pair https://t.co/hxGFGY6D3Z", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "694224894805032964", "source": "TweetDeck", "created_at": "2016-02-01T18:24:47.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 6, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "686753187727044609", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 23, "end": 42, "probability": 0.9363, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}]}, "author_id": "56993835", "text": "\"Bro stop being such a David Foster Wallace footnote\"", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "686753187727044609", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2016-01-12T03:34:53.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 2, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "644308060937265152", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 19, "end": 31, "probability": 0.9963, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Carly Fiorina"}, {"start": 45, "end": 64, "probability": 0.9365, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 81, "end": 93, "probability": 0.9944, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Carly Fiorina"}, {"start": 97, "end": 116, "probability": 0.915, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 13, "username": "MEPFuller", "id": "398088661"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "retweeted", "id": "644307901830561793"}], "author_id": "61734492", "text": "RT @MEPFuller: Did Carly Fiorina just make a David Foster Wallace reference?\n\nIs Carly Fiorina a David Foster Wallace bro??", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "644308060937265152", "source": "Twitter Web Client", "created_at": "2015-09-17T00:33:07.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 5, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "644307992901517312", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 19, "end": 31, "probability": 0.9963, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Carly Fiorina"}, {"start": 45, "end": 64, "probability": 0.9365, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 81, "end": 93, "probability": 0.9944, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Carly Fiorina"}, {"start": 97, "end": 116, "probability": 0.915, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 13, "username": "MEPFuller", "id": "398088661"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "retweeted", "id": "644307901830561793"}], "author_id": "22330423", "text": "RT @MEPFuller: Did Carly Fiorina just make a David Foster Wallace reference?\n\nIs Carly Fiorina a David Foster Wallace bro??", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "644307992901517312", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2015-09-17T00:32:50.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 5, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "644307901830561793", "reply_settings": "everyone", 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"David Foster Wallace was *not* a bro: Don't paint the writer with the same brush as his fans http://t.co/vZvwEien22", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "631931489769390080", "source": "SocialFlow", "created_at": "2015-08-13T20:53:02.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 10, "reply_count": 3, "like_count": 15, "quote_count": 0}}, {"attachments": {"media_keys": ["3_631825542652784640"]}, "id": "631828145105162240", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 54, "end": 73, "probability": 0.9324, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 3, "end": 10, "username": "TheCut", "id": "19923638"}], "urls": [{"start": 76, "end": 98, "url": "http://t.co/3KfOlw2UR6", "expanded_url": "http://thecut.io/1Plvg4X", "display_url": "thecut.io/1Plvg4X"}, {"start": 99, "end": 121, "url": "http://t.co/xNI9tbF02p", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/TheCut/status/631825543202213889/photo/1", 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With footnotes. #BillandDaves http://t.co/gU84ybdk2C", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "545020559248343040", "source": "Twitter Web Client", "created_at": "2014-12-17T01:00:01.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "270661455727165442", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 0, "end": 7, "probability": 0.6927, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Ayn Rand"}, {"start": 48, "end": 67, "probability": 0.7967, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "david foster wallace"}], "mentions": [{"start": 21, "end": 28, "username": "supsla", "id": "42003947"}]}, "author_id": "15022464", "text": "Ayn Rand too, bro RT @SUPSLA: of couuuuuuuuurse david foster wallace is quoted.", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "270661455727165442", "source": "TweetDeck", "created_at": "2012-11-19T22:54:54.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "146330510422048768", "reply_settings": "everyone", "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "replied_to", "id": "146329543211368449"}], "entities": {"mentions": [{"start": 0, "end": 15, "username": "MelodicRecords", "id": "85877346"}], "urls": [{"start": 113, "end": 133, "url": "http://t.co/q0RUmv12", "expanded_url": "http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/21/magazine/another-thing-to-sort-of-pin-on-david-foster-wallace.html?pagewanted=all", "display_url": "nytimes.com/2011/08/21/mag\u2026"}]}, "author_id": "15644695", "text": "@MelodicRecords chillax brother, we all gud. Put another blunt on the barbie 'n' go wid th' flo bro. Dude man... http://t.co/q0RUmv12", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "146329543211368449", "source": "Twitter Web Client", "in_reply_to_user_id": "85877346", "created_at": "2011-12-12T20:48:07.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}], "includes": {"users": [{"name": "Josh Lowe", "pinned_tweet_id": "1408347187415769088", "username": "JeyyLowe", "public_metrics": {"followers_count": 6037, "following_count": 3689, "tweet_count": 64279, "listed_count": 129}, "url": "https://t.co/jbBZxEX5yD", "description": "Policy-focused content person. (Mostly) ex-journalist. Working on a thing launching soon. 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story.", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1412043478301880331", "source": "Twitter for Android", "in_reply_to_user_id": "342644076", "created_at": "2021-07-06T10:40:01.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 0, "reply_count": 1, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1053753085489606656", "name": "Laura Ingraham", "description": "Laura Ingraham"}}, {"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1070711281076715520", "name": "Virginia Heffernan", "description": "American journalist"}}, {"domain": {"id": "46", "name": "Brand Category", "description": "Categories within Brand Verticals that narrow down the scope of Brands"}, "entity": {"id": "781974596752842752", "name": "Services"}}, {"domain": {"id": "47", "name": "Brand", 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"normalized_text": "david foster wallace"}]}, "author_id": "236999725", "text": "david foster wallace bro conversation again? i feel like by this point in the discourse i need footnotes! (just a little \"insider\" dfw humor for ya)", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1297936487909130240", "source": "Twitter Web App", "created_at": "2020-08-24T16:39:07.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 23, "reply_count": 4, "like_count": 409, "quote_count": 1}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "65", "name": "Interests and Hobbies Vertical", "description": "Top level interests and hobbies groupings, like Food or Travel"}, "entity": {"id": "834828264786898945", "name": "Drinks", "description": "Drinks"}}, {"domain": {"id": "66", "name": "Interests and Hobbies Category", "description": "A grouping of interests and hobbies entities, like Novelty Food or Destinations"}, "entity": {"id": "834828445238431744", "name": "Generic Drinks", "description": "Generic Drinks"}}, {"domain": {"id": "67", "name": "Interests and Hobbies", "description": "Interests, opinions, and behaviors of individuals, groups, or cultures; like Speciality Cooking or Theme Parks"}, "entity": {"id": "850401418141761536", "name": "Whiskey", "description": "Whiskey"}}, {"domain": {"id": "85", "name": "Book Genre", "description": "A genre for books, like Fiction"}, "entity": {"id": "874731263185141761", "name": "Non-fiction", "description": "Non-Fiction"}}], "id": "1296458752657326081", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 213, "end": 220, "probability": 0.8283, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Faulkner"}], "urls": [{"start": 228, "end": 251, "url": "https://t.co/KTYy7PpHGg", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/DavidQuammen/status/1295876938246926336", "display_url": "twitter.com/DavidQuammen/s\u2026"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "quoted", "id": "1295876938246926336"}], "author_id": "365438535", "text": "Would be interested to hear other writers of primarily nonfiction weigh in on this question: What novelists do you not only admire, but *consciously derive inspiration from*, structural or otherwise? Quammen says Faulkner. You? https://t.co/KTYy7PpHGg", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1296458752657326081", "source": "Twitter Web App", "created_at": "2020-08-20T14:47:08.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1, "reply_count": 19, "like_count": 28, "quote_count": 1}}, {"context_annotations": [{"domain": {"id": "10", "name": "Person", "description": "Named people in the world like Nelson Mandela"}, "entity": {"id": "1011963575089262593", "name": "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez", "description": "US Representative from New York Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez"}}, {"domain": {"id": "35", "name": "Politician", "description": "Politicians in the world, like Joe Biden"}, "entity": {"id": "1011963575089262593", "name": "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez", "description": "US Representative from New York Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez"}}, {"domain": {"id": "65", "name": "Interests and Hobbies Vertical", "description": "Top level interests and hobbies groupings, like Food or Travel"}, "entity": {"id": "825047692124442624", "name": "Food", "description": "Food"}}, {"domain": {"id": "30", "name": "Entities [Entity Service]", "description": "Entity Service top level domain, every item that is in Entity Service should be in this domain"}, "entity": {"id": "824777229892661248", "name": "Generic Food", "description": "Generic Food"}}, {"domain": {"id": "30", "name": "Entities [Entity Service]", "description": "Entity Service top level domain, every item that is in Entity Service should be in this domain"}, "entity": {"id": "825065539378688000", "name": "Seafood", "description": "Seafood"}}], "id": "1075614808853110785", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 18, "end": 33, "probability": 0.5642, "type": "Other", "normalized_text": "Hope in the Dark"}, {"start": 36, "end": 42, "probability": 0.5373, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Solnit"}, {"start": 100, "end": 107, "probability": 0.7767, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Thurman"}, {"start": 146, "end": 156, "probability": 0.6957, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Audre Lorde"}, {"start": 218, "end": 232, "probability": 0.3879, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez"}], "urls": [{"start": 281, "end": 304, "url": "https://t.co/NS3C4X5dgB", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/OneGrandBooks/status/1075124997432270848", "display_url": "twitter.com/OneGrandBooks/\u2026"}]}, "referenced_tweets": [{"type": "quoted", "id": "1075124997432270848"}], "author_id": "138203134", "text": "A few classics:\n- Hope in the Dark, Solnit\n- Why We Can\u2019t Wait, MLK\n- The Search for Common Ground, Thurman\n- Team of Rivals, Goodwin\n- Col Poems,Audre Lorde\n- Bhagavad Gita\n- Capital, Piketty\n- 100 Years of Solitude, Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez\n- Infinite Jest / Consider the Lobster, Wallace https://t.co/NS3C4X5dgB", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "1075614808853110785", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2018-12-20T04:52:09.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1613, "reply_count": 741, "like_count": 14020, "quote_count": 369}}, {"id": "898243199722016768", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 31, "end": 50, "probability": 0.9482, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}]}, "author_id": "275829938", "text": "UPDATE: I met a \"Have you read David Foster Wallace?\" bro at law school. It only took four days, fam. FOUR.", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "898243199722016768", "source": "Twitter Web Client", "created_at": "2017-08-17T18:00:42.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 1, "reply_count": 2, "like_count": 12, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "733665146216779776", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 56, "end": 75, "probability": 0.9568, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 80, "end": 92, "probability": 0.7492, "type": "Other", "normalized_text": "This is Water"}], "mentions": [{"start": 27, "end": 31, "username": "srl", "id": "764476890"}], "urls": [{"start": 117, "end": 140, "url": "https://t.co/oQBSGEWsG9", "expanded_url": "http://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/david-foster-wallace-this-is-water_us_573e1182e4b0aee7b8e962d0", "display_url": "m.huffpost.com/us/entry/david\u2026"}]}, "author_id": "398088661", "text": "Been waiting to tweet this @srl story for 16 hours. How David Foster Wallace's \"This is Water\" almost didn't happen. https://t.co/oQBSGEWsG9", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "733665146216779776", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2016-05-20T14:26:16.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 2, "reply_count": 2, "like_count": 13, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "644307901830561793", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 4, "end": 16, "probability": 0.9955, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Carly Fiorina"}, {"start": 30, "end": 49, "probability": 0.9285, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}, {"start": 66, "end": 78, "probability": 0.9941, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "Carly Fiorina"}, {"start": 82, "end": 101, "probability": 0.9103, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}]}, "author_id": "398088661", "text": "Did Carly Fiorina just make a David Foster Wallace reference?\n\nIs Carly Fiorina a David Foster Wallace bro??", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "644307901830561793", "source": "Twitter for iPhone", "created_at": "2015-09-17T00:32:29.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 5, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 11, "quote_count": 0}}, {"attachments": {"media_keys": ["3_631825542652784640"]}, "id": "631825543202213889", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 42, "end": 61, "probability": 0.9218, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "urls": [{"start": 64, "end": 86, "url": "http://t.co/3KfOlw2UR6", "expanded_url": "http://thecut.io/1Plvg4X", "display_url": "thecut.io/1Plvg4X"}, {"start": 87, "end": 109, "url": "http://t.co/xNI9tbF02p", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/TheCut/status/631825543202213889/photo/1", "display_url": "pic.twitter.com/xNI9tbF02p"}]}, "author_id": "19923638", "text": "You probably know a bro who says he loves David Foster Wallace: http://t.co/3KfOlw2UR6 http://t.co/xNI9tbF02p", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "631825543202213889", "source": "SocialFlow", "created_at": "2015-08-13T13:52:02.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 7, "reply_count": 0, "like_count": 5, "quote_count": 0}}, {"attachments": {"media_keys": ["3_631820273633918976"]}, "id": "631820274330136576", "reply_settings": "everyone", "entities": {"annotations": [{"start": 24, "end": 43, "probability": 0.931, "type": "Person", "normalized_text": "David Foster Wallace"}], "urls": [{"start": 73, "end": 95, "url": "http://t.co/w5KOvJBcui", "expanded_url": "http://www.theawl.com/2015/08/the-bro-of-the-system", "display_url": "theawl.com/2015/08/the-br\u2026"}, {"start": 96, "end": 118, "url": "http://t.co/yBhOr3aPjy", "expanded_url": "https://twitter.com/Awl/status/631820274330136576/photo/1", "display_url": "pic.twitter.com/yBhOr3aPjy"}]}, "author_id": "13566872", "text": "All men are bad but are David Foster Wallace fans a special kind of bad? http://t.co/w5KOvJBcui http://t.co/yBhOr3aPjy", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "631820274330136576", "source": "CoSchedule", "created_at": "2015-08-13T13:31:06.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 8, "reply_count": 3, "like_count": 27, "quote_count": 0}}, {"id": "146329543211368449", "reply_settings": "everyone", "author_id": "85877346", "text": "British bloggers should stop using usa style descriptive words like 'stoked' and 'dope' and use 'delightful' and' spiffing instead?Discuss?'", "lang": "en", "possibly_sensitive": false, "conversation_id": "146329543211368449", "source": "Twitter for BlackBerry\u00ae", "created_at": "2011-12-12T20:44:16.000Z", "public_metrics": {"retweet_count": 2, "reply_count": 4, "like_count": 0, "quote_count": 0}}], "media": [{"media_key": "3_631825542652784640", "width": 600, "type": "photo", "height": 400, "url": "https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CMSx-8XWcAAnkK-.jpg"}, {"media_key": "3_631820273633918976", "width": 278, "type": "photo", "height": 235, "url": "https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CMStMPvXAAA5a1J.jpg"}]}, "__twarc": {"url": "https://api.twitter.com/2/tweets?expansions=author_id%2Cin_reply_to_user_id%2Creferenced_tweets.id%2Creferenced_tweets.id.author_id%2Centities.mentions.username%2Cattachments.poll_ids%2Cattachments.media_keys%2Cgeo.place_id&user.fields=created_at%2Cdescription%2Centities%2Cid%2Clocation%2Cname%2Cpinned_tweet_id%2Cprofile_image_url%2Cprotected%2Cpublic_metrics%2Curl%2Cusername%2Cverified%2Cwithheld&tweet.fields=attachments%2Cauthor_id%2Ccontext_annotations%2Cconversation_id%2Ccreated_at%2Centities%2Cgeo%2Cid%2Cin_reply_to_user_id%2Clang%2Cpublic_metrics%2Ctext%2Cpossibly_sensitive%2Creferenced_tweets%2Creply_settings%2Csource%2Cwithheld&media.fields=alt_text%2Cduration_ms%2Cheight%2Cmedia_key%2Cpreview_image_url%2Ctype%2Curl%2Cwidth%2Cpublic_metrics&poll.fields=duration_minutes%2Cend_datetime%2Cid%2Coptions%2Cvoting_status&place.fields=contained_within%2Ccountry%2Ccountry_code%2Cfull_name%2Cgeo%2Cid%2Cname%2Cplace_type&ids=1412360883582418945%2C1408833479304003589%2C1313590839977947136%2C1313523086424186881%2C1298060678432010240%2C1297973554986639360%2C1296466668898717696%2C1259920233600479233%2C1075778924280471553%2C995487617549512704%2C898246334804787202%2C844552567522820096%2C760889024403873792%2C733665498148294657%2C694224894805032964%2C686753187727044609%2C644308060937265152%2C644307992901517312%2C644307901830561793%2C632152536636608512%2C631931489769390080%2C631828145105162240%2C631825643441901568%2C631825543202213889%2C631820349290774528%2C545020559248343040%2C270661455727165442%2C146330510422048768", "version": "2.4.3", "retrieved_at": "2021-08-30T21:22:13+00:00"}}

Deleted Tweets & The Right To Be Forgotten

What happens if someone decides to delete their tweet between the time when the tweet is first collected and the time when the tweet is “hydrated”? The deleted tweet will not be hydrated. The deleted tweet is no longer be accessible.

Where to Find Tweet IDs

You can find repositories of tweet IDs that have been shared by other researchers in the following places: